Green Glossary


Taken from NZP Magazine February 2011

Carbon Neutral

Carbon Neutral describes products, operations and activities which have had their greenhouse gas emissions measured, calculated and then 'offset' through the purchase of Carbon Credits. Carbon Neutral products, operations and activities should be certified by an independent organisation that specialises in system management and auditing.

Chain of Custody

The means of tracking a product along the supply chain. For instance being able to trace paper from the forest of origin, through pulp and paper mill, paper merchant and printer to the end user. Often a third party audits the Chain of Custody system, as with the FSC and PEFC schemes. For Chain of Custody to work, each group which handles/transforms the product must be certified.

Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF)

Paper pulp that is whitened/bleached, using derivatives of Chlorine that does not release harmful dioxins into the environment. Dioxins have proven to be carcinogenic and now studies have shown that mills using ECF bleaching have eliminated dioxins from mill effluent.


Enviro-mark is an environmental certification programme, Enviro-Mark provides the resources and support needed to implement a credible and effective environmental management system.

CQ has Enviro-Mark Bronze Accreditation.

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)

The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international network promoting responsible management of the world's forests. The principles for management of FSC certified forests are used to verify the management of forest holdings and are a system of tracing, verifying and labelling timber and wood based products which originate from certified forests.

Pre-consumer Waste

Waste that has left the mill but has not reached the end user. Typically trimmings and offcuts from paper converters.

Plantation / Tree Farm

Areas of intensively managed trees of either native or exotic species which are created by the regular placement of seedlings or seed specifically for timber and/or fibre production. Usually contain only one species - monoculture.

Post-consumer Waste

There are various definitions of Post-consumer waste including: FSC definition: paper waste that has reached the end user, typically homes and offices (excludes unsold final product.) ISO14021 definition: paper waste that has been converted to its final use (includes unsold final product.) Essentially post-consumer waste is what we put in the recycling bin.


To obtain the Recycled label, a paper must contain recovered materials. The amount may vary considerably, from small percentages of pre-consumer to 100 per cent post-consumer materials, and any combination of the two. Most recycled papers will have a recovered content of at least twenty per cent.

Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes (PEFC)

A scheme for auditing forestry operations, taking into account the effects on the environment. The PEFC council is an independent, non-profit, non-government organisation, founded in 1999 which promotes sustainably managed forests and chain of custody through independent third party certification. PEFC provides an assurance mechanism to purchasers of wood and paper products that they are promoting the sustainable management of forests. PEFC recognises local national forestry standards under the global certification, such as the Australian Forestry Standard AS4707 is recognised under PEFC. Both FSC and PEFC have the same aims, that is to engender responsible forestry and protect high risk forests.

Totally Chlorine Free (TCF)

Paper pulp that is whitened/bleached, using systems other than Chlorine. Alternative bleaching agents include Hydrogen Peroxide and Ozone. The term TCF cannot be associated with recycled papers because it is impossible to know if the fibre was originally whitened using a Chlorine based system.



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